The Ottoman Sultans

Bursa, which founded Ottoman Empire, has got six tombs of Ottoman Sultans. Osman Bey and Orhan Gazi's tombs are located in Tophane district, Sultan I. Murad Hudavendigar's tomb is located in Cekirge district, Sultan Yildirim Bayezid's tomb is located in Yildirim district, Sultan Celebi Mehmed's tomb is located in Yesil and Sultan II. Murad's tomb is located in Muradiye districts. .

 

Osman Gazi Tomb

The tomb of Osman Bey (1299-1326), who is the founder of the Ottoman Empire, is located at the entrance of the Tophane (Armory) Park which is Citadel (Hisar). According to his will, Osman Bey was buried in this tomb known as 'Silver Dome' (Gumuslu Kumbet), which had been constructed on a former Byzantine Chapel, after Bursa was conquered. The place is also called as 'Monastery with the Drum' in the public due to a drum, which was being sent to Osman Gazi by a Seljuk Sultan as the symbol of independence and was still protected here. The tomb was burned in 1801 and was completely destroyed in 1855 during an earthquake. Sultan Abdulaziz got the tomb restored in 1863 according to the original plan. The building was constructed with cut kufeki stone and the top is covered with a dome. The thickness of the walls are 1,2 meters, the building has an octagonal plan and a vaulted entrance. The dome, which has an octagonal rim, is covered with lead. Osman Bey's magnificent mother-ofpearl sarcophagus lies at the centre of the tomb.

The sarcophagus covered with velvet ornamented with silver gilt threads is surrounded by brass metal fences. There are windows with round arches at all sides of the tomb except the entrance. There are 17 sarcophagus in the tomb that belong to his son Alaaddin Bey, Ibrahim the son of Orhan Gazi, Savci Bey the son of Sultan I.Murad, and Asporca Hatun the wife of Orhan Gazi.

 

Orhangazi Tomb

The tomb, which is located at the Citadel (Hisar) at the right side of the entrance of the Tophane (Armory) Park, belongs to Orhan Gazi (1326-1362), who was the conqueror of Bursa. The tomb was constructed on the remains of the Byzantine Monastery Saint Elias. The tomb was destructed during the 1855 earthquake and Sultan Abdulaziz got the tomb rebuilt in 1863. The ground mosaics have survived until today. The walls of the tomb are 1,30 meters thick and the entrance to the tomb is at the southern part. The tomb has four columns connected with arcs and it is covered with a small dome. This method was used in the construction of I.Murad's and II.Murad's tombs. The internal area which has a square plan is illuminated with three windows at all sides and one window at each side of the doors. The internal area of the building is painted with lime and has unsophisticated ornaments. Orhan Gazi's magnificent sarcophagus, which is surrounded with cast brass fences, lies at the centre of the tomb. There is a crystal blue chandelier over the sarcophagus. There are total of 20 sarcophagus in the tomb and they belong to Nilufer Hatun the wife of Orhan Gazi, Kasim Celebi the son of Orhan Gazi, Fatma Sultan the daughter of Orhan Gazi, Musa Celebi the son of Yildirim Bayezid, Abdullah the son of Cem Sultan, and Sehzade Korkut the son of Sultan II. Bayezid.

Sultan I.Murad Hudavendigar Complex and Tomb

The first sultan of the Ottoman Empire that has died in the battle was Sultan I. Murad Hudavendigar (1362-1389); his complex and tomb are located in the Cekirge district. The complex got built by Sultan I.Murad Hudavendigar in 1366 and is composed of a mosque, madarasaa, public soup-kitchen, inn, tomb and Turkish Bathhouse. Hudavendigar Mosque, which was constructed on a hill of Cekirge overlooking Bursa, is different from the other mosques of Bursa due to having two-storey and having a medresa upstairs. The headings and columns used at the medresa have been taken from Byzantine buildings. Hudavendigar Bathhouse (bachelor's bathhouse) located at the eastern part of the mosque is still used today.

The tomb, which got constructed by Sultan Yildirim Bayezid for his father Sultan I.Murad Hudavendigar, is located straight ahead the mosque. At the centre of the tomb, which has a square plan, there is the sarcophagus of Sultan I.Murad Hudavendigar surrounded by brass fences and at both sides there are graves of his grandsons Suleyman Celebi and Musa Celebi, Orhan the son of Suleyman Celebi, Sehzade Mehmet the son of Sultan II Bayezid.

The Complex and Tomb of Sultan Yildirim Bayezid

The Complex and Tomb of Sultan Yildirim Bayezid (1389-1402) is located in Yildirim District. The complex is regarded as the most important indicator of the Ottoman Empire's transformation from a beylic to a state. Yildirim Complex, which got built at the end of 14th Century by Sultan Yildirim Bayezid using the loot from Nigbolu War, is composed of a mosque, madarasaa, hospital, tomb, caravanserai, bathhouse and public soup kitchen.

The madarasaa is currently used as a dispensary and the hospital is used as an eye hospital. Yildirim Bayezid Mosque is located on a hill overlooking Bursa Plain. Despite the fact that the construction was started at the end of the 14th Century the mosque got incomplete because of the Ankara War and has been completed by Musa Celebi. The stone work of the construction, which has prime architectural specialities of reverse T-plan mosques, is perfect. Yildirim Mosque, which was severely damaged during the 1855 earthquake, has been repaired at different periods. The madarasaa, which got built by Sultan Yildirim Bayezid, in 1399 is located at the northwestern part of the complex. The walls of the madarasaa were built from brick and stone. The madarasaa's structure is classical Ottoman. There are 20 rooms behind the porticos surrounding the courtyard from three sides. The classroom located in front of the entrance is covered with a large dome. The ornaments made with star shaped and flat bricks are very beautiful. The madarasaa which was repaired at different times is still used as a dispensary. Yildirim Hospital which is a part of the complex however built on a hill far from the complex is the first hospital of the Ottomans. The hospital which was completed in 1394 served as a polyclinic and also an education centre. The hospital has been used as an armoury for a while and thus called as the powder magazine. The hospital was restored at different periods. The building is currently used as an eye hospital under the name Yildirim Darussifa Goz Merkezi (Yildirim Darussifa Eye Center). The bathhouse is located in a street at the west of the mosque. The tomb of Yildirim Beyazid is at the northeast part of Yildirim Mosque. The tomb, which got constructed by his son Suleyman Han in 1406 is regarded as the first of the Ottoman tombs. There are sarcophagus of Sultan Yildirim Bayezid, his son Isa Celebi and Kasim Celebi and other relatives.

 

Celebi Sultan Mehmet

The grave of Celebi Sultan Mehmed (1413-1421) is in Green Tomb, which is one of the symbols of Bursa. Green Complex, which is composed of a mosque, a madarasah (Moslem theological school), a public soup-kitchen and a Turkish bath and including the Green Tomb, (Yesil Turbe), got constructed by Sultan Celebi Mehmed in 1419. It is called Green Tomb because of the greenish tiles that cover the building. The architect of the tomb is Hajji Ivaz Pasha who also designed the Green Mosque. The tomb is built on an octagonal plan and the burial vault at the lowest floor resembles Seljuk vaults. The narrowest facade is 8,45 meters and the largest facade is 8,87 meters; there are eight windows on the octagonal building and the tomb is crowned with a spherical dome build at a high level and covered with lead. The tiles used for window pediments are covered with verses of the Koran and Prophet Mohammad's deeds. The facade, which has survived with minimum changes, is located at the first eastern part of the entrance. The ornamented door made of walnut tree is one of the greatest examples of Ottoman wood ornaments. Bursa fascia pavilion and the surroundings are covered with tiles and the door has rosette, rumi and geometric ornaments.

The coloured glazing and mosaic tile ornaments in the tomb are uniquely beautiful. The tomb has a mihrab with extraordinary tiles survived to our day. The mihrab with colourful and geometric tiles is considered as an artistic masterpiece. The sarcophagus of Celebi Sultan Mehmed located in the tomb is octagonal; the sides are made of marble and the top is covered with glazed tiles. Inscriptions are written on the white, blue, yellow and navy blue tiles of the sarcophagus. Around the sarcophagus of Celebi Sultan Mehmed there are sarcophagus with glazed tiles of his sons Mustafa, Mahmud and Yusuf and his daughters Selcuk Hatun, Sitti Hatun and Ayse Hatun and also Daya Hatun the governess of Celebi Sultan Mehmed.

 

Tomb of II.Murad

The tomb of Sultan II.Murad is the last emperor buried in Bursa is located in the Muradiye Complex in Muradiye District. The construction of Muradiye Complex was started in 1425 and is composed of a mosque, bathhouse, madarasaa, public soup kitchen and 12 tombs located at its garden. The tomb of Sultan II.Murad is the largest and the glorious tomb in the complex. The tomb, which has been constructed by Fatih Sultan Mehmet according to the will of his father, is located straight ahead the magnificent entrance of the mosque. Sultan II.Murad has requested in his will that he shall be buried in Bursa near the tomb of his deceased son Sehzade Mustafa wherever he dies, that he shall not be buried in a sarcophagus and that the top of his grave shall be open enabling rain to fall on his grave and that no other person shall be buried next to him. His grave is covered with soil. The tomb is accessed through a marble iwan. The wooden eave ornamented with gilt nail heads twelve corners and geometric patterns, is considered to be a masterpiece. The plan of the tomb is the same with the tombs of Orhan Gazi and Sultan I.Murad . The dome of the tomb sits on an octagonal rim and is cross vaulted. The eastern window of the tomb was transformed into a door. The sarcophagus of his son Alaeddin, Sehzade Ahmet, Sehzade Orhan and his daughter Sehzade Hatun are in this area. In the epigraph it says that Sultan II.Murat deceased in 1451.